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Friday, April 20, 2012

Mother's Day



Mother's Day is a celebration honoring mothers and celebrating motherhood, maternal bonds and the influence of mothers in society. It is celebrated on various days in many parts of the world, yet most commonly in March, April, or May. It complements Father's Day, the celebration honoring fathers.
Celebrations of mothers and motherhood occur throughout the world; many of these can be traced back to ancient festivals, like the Greek cult to Cybele, the Roman festival of Hilaria or the Christian Mothering Sunday celebration.

Dates around the world

In the US, Mother's Day is not connected with any older celebrations of Motherhood. However, in some other countries and cultures, other celebrations of Motherhood have become known as Mother's Day (for example, in the UK flowers and gifts were traditionally brought to mothers on Mothering Sunday, and this date is now called Mother's Day in the UK) or the date of Mother's Day has been chosen to coincide with an existing festival (in Greece, the Orthodoxcelebration of the presentation of Jesus Christ to the temple on 2 February is Mother's Day). In some countries the date was changed to one that was significant to the majority religion, such as Virgin Mary day in Catholic countries. Other countries selected a date with historical significance, such as Bolivia using the date of a battle where women participated.


International history and traditions


In most countries, Mother's Day is a recent observance derived from the holiday as it has evolved in America. When it was adopted by other countries and cultures, it was given different meanings, associated to different events (religious, historical or legendary), and celebrated on a different date or dates.
Some countries already had existing celebrations honoring motherhood, and their celebrations have adopted several external characteristics from the US holiday, like giving carnations and other presents to your own mother.
The extent of the celebrations varies greatly. In some countries, it is potentially offensive to one's mother not to mark Mother's Day. In others, it is a little-known festival celebrated mainly by immigrants, or covered by the media as a taste of foreign culture.

Celebration of Mother's Day in Different Countries:

Bangladesh:

In Bangladesh, Mother's Day is celebrated on the second Sunday of the month of May. In observance of the day discussion programs are organized by government and non-governmental organizations. Reception programs, cultural programs are organized to mark the day in the Capital city. Television channels aired special programs and newspapers published special features and column to mark the day. Greeting cards, flowers and gifts featuring mother’s specialty to the children were on high demand at the shops and markets.


Arab World:

Mother's Day in most Arab countries is celebrated on 21 March. It was introduced in Egypt by journalist Mustafa Amin in his book (Smiling America) 1943. The idea was overlooked at the time, but when Amin heard the story of a widowed mother who devoted her whole life to raise her son until he became a doctor, got married and left without showing her any gratitude, Amin became motivated to promote for "Mother's Day". The idea was first ridiculed by president Gamal Abdel Nasser but he eventually accepted it and Mother's Day was first celebrated on 21 March 1956. The practice has since been copied by the other Arab countries.
When Mustafa Amin was arrested and imprisoned, there were attempts to change the name of the holiday from "Mother's Day" to "Family Day" as the government wished to prevent the occasion from reminding people of its founder. These attempts were unsuccessful and celebrations continued to be held on that day; classic songs celebrating mothers remain famous to this day.

Israeli Arabs
:
Israeli Arabs (about 20% of the population) celebrate Mother's Day on 21 March, similar to other Arab countries.

Jordan:
In Jordan Mother's Day is observed and celebrated on 21 March, the first day of spring in the northern hemisphere.

Lebanon:
Mother's Day in Lebanon is celebrated on 21 March, the first day of spring in the northern hemisphere.


Afghanistan:

In Afghanistan, Mother's Day was celebrated on 12 June 2010, on the second Saturday in June.


Argentina:

In Argentina it is celebrated on the third Sunday of October. It was first celebrated in 11 October, the old liturgical date for the celebration of Virgin Mary (after the Second Vatican Council the Virgin Mary festivity was moved to 1 January). Around 1982, the national merchants asked that it was moved to the third Sunday of October, in order to reactivate the sales of the second half of that month.


Australia:

In Australia, Mother's Day is celebrated on the second Sunday in May. It is not a public holiday, nor is it known as a holiday.
The tradition of gift giving to mothers on Mother's Day in Australia was started by Mrs Janet Heyden, a resident of Leichhardt Sydney, in 1924. She began the tradition during a visit to a patient at the Newington State Home for Women, where she met many lonely and forgotten mothers. To cheer them up, she rounded up support from local school children and businesses to donate and bring gifts to the women. Every year thereafter, more support was raised by Mrs Heyden with local businesses and even the local Mayor. The day has since become commercialized. Traditionally, theChrysanthemum is given to mothers for mother's day as the flower is naturally in season during Autumn and ends in 'mum', the Australian slang for a mother.


Bolivia:

In Bolivia, Mother's Day is celebrated on 27 May. The Dia de la Madre Boliviana was passed into law on 8 November 1927, during the presidency of Hernando Siles Reyes. It commemorates the Battle of Coronilla, which took place on 27 May 1812, during the Bolivian War of Independence, in what is now the city of Cochabamba. In this battle, women fighting for the country's independence were slaughtered by the Spanish army. It is not a festive day, but all schools make activities and festivities during this day. "Ma Dibos"


Brazil:

In Brazil, Mother's Day is celebrated on the second Sunday of May.
The first Mother's Day in the country was promoted by Associação Cristã de Moços de Porto Alegre (Young Men's Christian Association of Porto Alegre), on 12 May 1918. In 1932, the then-President Getulio Vargas made official the date on the second Sunday of May. In 1947, Archbishop Jaime de Barros Chamber, Cardinal-Archbishop of Rio de Janeiro, determined that this date was also included in the official calendar of the Catholic Church.
It is considered an unofficial holiday (see Public holidays in Brazil).


Bulgaria:

The 8th of March in Bulgaria is associated with the International Women's Day. Usually the holiday is honouring the Woman as a human being and also as an equal partner.
There is another Bulgarian holiday related to the Family and the Maternity which is called BABINDEN (in Bulgarian Бабинден) and it is celebrated on 8 January.


Canada:

Mother's Day in Canada is celebrated on the second Sunday in May (it is not however, a public holiday or bank holiday), and typically involves small celebrations and gift-giving to one's mother, grandmother, or other important female figures in one's family. Celebratory practices are very similar to those of other western nations, such as Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States. Many people in Canada express their gratitude towards mothers and mother figures on Mother’s Day. A Québécois tradition: many Québécois men offer roses or other flowers to the women.


China:

The day is becoming more popular in China, and carnations are a very popular gift and the most sold type of flower. In 1997 it was set as the day to help poor mothers, specially to remind people of the poor mothers in rural areas such as China's western region. In the People's Daily, the Chinese government's official newspaper, an article explained that "despite originating in the United States, people in China accept the holiday without hesitation because it is in line with the country's traditional ethics – respect for the elderly and filial piety towards parents."
In recent years the Communist Party member Li Hanqiu began to advocate for the official adoption of Mother's Day in memory of Meng Mu, the mother of Mèng Zǐ, and formed a non-governmental organization called Chinese Mothers' Festival Promotion Society, with the support of 100 Confucian scholars and lecturers of ethics. They also ask to replace the Western gift of carnations withlilies, which, in ancient times, were planted by Chinese mothers when children left home. It remains an unofficial festival, except in a small number of cities.


Czech Republic:

Czech Republic celebrated Women's Day until the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. After the split of the country in 1993, the Czech republic started celebrating Mother's Day and Saint Valentine's Day. However, the Czechs saw those two celebrations as commercialized and artificial, and they had mild popularity. Nowadays, the sales of flowers for Women's Day are approaching those for Mother's Day or Valentine's Day.


Estonia:

In Estonia Mother's Day (emadepäev in Estonian) is celebrated on the second Sunday of May. It is recognized nationally, but not a public holiday.


France:

In France, alarmed by the low birth rate, there had been attempts in 1896 and 1904 to make a national celebration honoring the mothers of large families. American World War I soldiers fighting in France popularized the US holiday created by Ann Jarvis; they sent so much mail back to their country for Mother's Day that the Union franco-américaine created a postal card for that purpose. In 1918, also inspired by Jarvis, the town of Lyon wanted to celebrate a "journée des Mères", but it finally decided to celebrate a "Journée Nationale des Mères de familles nombreuses", which was more inspired by the anti-depopulation efforts than the US holiday, with medals being awarded to the mothers of large families. The French government officialised the day in 1920 as a day for mothers of large families. Since 1920 it awards the Médaille de la Famille française to mothers of big families.
In 1941, by initiative of Philippe Pétain, the wartime Vichy government used the celebration as part of their policy to encourage larger families; but all mothers were now being honored, even the ones who had small families. The law of 24 May 1950 required that the Republic pay official homage to French Mothers on the last Sunday in May as the "Fête des Mères" (except when Pentecost fell on that day, in which case it was moved to the first Sunday in June). A budget was provided for the celebration in 1956, and responsibility was transferred to the Minister responsible for Families in 2004.
During the 1950s the celebration lost all its patriotic and natalist ideologies, and became heavily commercialized.


Germany:

The holiday was now seen as a means to get the women to bear more children, and nationalists saw it as a way of rejuvenating the nation. The holiday did not celebrate the individual women, but an idealized standard of motherhood. The progressive forces resisted the implementation of the holiday because it was backed by so many conservatives, and because they saw it as a way to cut the rights of the worker women. Die Frau, the newspaper of the Federation of German Women's Associations, refused to even recognize the holiday. Many local authorities made their own interpretation of the holiday: it would be a day to support economically larger families or single-mother families. The guidelines for the subsidies had eugenics criteria, but there is no indication that social workers ever implemented them in practice, and subsidies were given preferentially to families in economic needs rather than families with more children or with "healthier" children.In the 1920s, Germany had the lowest birthrate in Europe, and it was still declining. It was attributed to women's participation in the labor market. At the same time, all influential groups in society (left and right politicians, churchwomen, and feminists) thought that mothers should be honored but could not agree on how to do it. All those groups agreed strongly in the promotion of the values of motherhood. in 1923, this resulted in the unanimous adoption of Muttertag, the Mother's Day holiday as imported from America and Norway. The head of the Association of German Florists cited "the inner conflict of our Volk and the loosening of the family" as his reason for introducing the holiday, and he expected that it would unite the divided country. In 1925, the Mother's Day Committee joined the task force for the recovery of the volk, and the holiday stopped depending on commercial interests and it started being about the level of population in Germany.
With the Nazi party in power during 1933–1945, this all changed radically. The propaganda for Mother's Day had increased in many European countries, including the UK and France, and Nazis increased it from the moment they entered into power. The role of mothers was unambiguously promoted as that of giving healthy children to the German nation. The Nazi party's intention was to create a pure "Aryan race" according to nazi eugenics. Among other Mother's Day ideas, the government promoted the death of a mother's sons in battle as the highest embodiment of patriotic motherhood.
The Nazis quickly declared Mother's Day an official holiday and put it under the control of the NSV (National Socialist People's Welfare Association) and the NSF (National Socialist Women Organization). This brought conflicts with other organizations that resented Nazi control of the holiday, like the Catholic and the Protestant churches and local women organizations. Local authorities continuously resisted the guidelines from the Nazi government and kept assigning resources to families that were in economical need, much to the dismay of the Nazi officials.
The government started issuing an award called Mother's Cross (Mutterkreuz) in 1938, with different categories depending on the number of children. The cross intended to encourage having more children, and recipients had to have at least 4 children. For example, a gold cross recipient (a level one) had to have eight children or more. Since having fewer children was a recent development, the gold cross was awarded mostly to elderly mothers with grown-up children. It promoted loyalty among German women and it was a popular award even though it had little material awards and it was mostly empty praise. The recipients of honors had to be examined by doctors and social workers according to genetic and racial values that were considered beneficial. The friends and family were also examined for possible flaws that could disqualify them, and they had to be "racially and morally fit". They had to be "German-blooded", "genetically healthy", "worthy", "politically reliable", and they could not have vices like drinking. Criteria against honors were, for example, "family history contains inferior blood", "unfeminine" behavior like smoking or doing poor housekeeping, not being "politically reliable", or having family members that had been "indicted and imprisoned". There were instances where a family was disqualified because a doctor saw signs of "feeblemindedness". Even contact with a Jew could disqualify a potential recipient. Some social workers had become disillusioned from the Weimar Republic and supported Nazi ideas personally as a means to "cure" the problems of the country. Application of policies was uneven, as doctors promoted medical criteria over racial criteria, and local authorities promoted economical need over any other criteria.
The holiday is now celebrated on the second Sunday of May, in a manner similar to other nearby European countries.


Greece:

Mother's Day in Greece is celebrated the second Sunday of May.


Hungary:

In Hungary, Mother's Day is celebrated on the first Sunday of May.


India:

India's mother's day is celebrated as Durga ashtami on which the feminine consciousness of the cosmos appeared as Goddess Durga. Although it is also called "Mother's Day", it is unrelated to the modern one celebrated across many parts of the world.


Indonesia:

Mother's day (IndonesianHari Ibu) is celebrated nationally on 22 December. It is the day of the first Indonesian Women Congress (IndonesianKongres Perempuan Indonesia) from 22 to 25 December 1928. The meeting happens in a building called Dalem Jayadipuran now functioned as office of Center of History and Traditional Values Preservation (IndonesianBalai Pelestarian Sejarah dan Nilai Tradisional) in Brigjen Katamso Street, Yogyakarta. It was attended by 30 feminist organizations from 12 cities in Java and Sumatra. In Indonesia, feminist organizations have existed since 1912, inspired by Indonesian heroines of the 19th century, e.g., KartiniMartha Christina TiahahuCut Nyak MeutiaMaria Walanda MaramisDewi SartikaNyai Ahmad DahlanRasuna Said, etc.
The idea to make the day official was started during the third Indonesian Women Congress in 1938. It was signed by President Soekarno under the Presidential Decree (IndonesianDekrit Presiden) no. 316 year 1959. The day was originally aimed to celebrate the spirit of Indonesian women and to improve the condition of the nation. Today, Mother's Day is celebrated by expressing love and gratitude to mothers. People present gifts to mothers, such as flowers, hold surprise parties and competitions such as cooking competition or kebaya wearing competition. People also allow mothers to have their day off from doing domestic chores.


Iran:

Celebrated on 20 Jumada al-thani, the birthday anniversary of FatimahMuhammad's daughter. It was changed after the Iranian Revolution, the reason having been theorized as trying to undercut feminist movements and promoting role models for the traditional model of family. It was previously 25 Azar on the Iranian calendar during the Shah era.


Israel:

It is celebrated on Shevat 30 of the Jewish calendar, which falls anywhere between the 30th of January and the 1st of March. It was set to the same day as the day Henrietta Szold died. Henrietta had no biological children, but her organization Youth Aliyah rescued many Jewish children from Nazi Germany and took care of them, and she also fought for several rights of Jewish children. She is considered the "mother" of all those children, and that is why her birthday was set as Mother's Day (יוֹם הָאֵם, yom ha'em). It has evolved over time, becoming a celebration of mutual love inside the family and it is called Family Day (יוֹם הַמִשְּפָּחָה, yom hamishpacha). It is only celebrated by children at kindergartens, there are no longer mutual gifts among members of the family, and there is no longer any commercialization of the celebration. It is not an official holiday either.


Italy:

Mother's Day in Italy was celebrated for the first time on 12 May 1957, in the city of Assisi, thanks to the initiative of Rev. Otello Migliosi, parish priest of the Tordibetto church. This celebration was so successful that the following year it was adopted throughout Italy, where since then it is usually celebrated on the second Sunday in May.


Japan:

Mother's Day in Japan was initially commemorated during the Shōwa period as the birthday of Empress Kōjun (mother of Emperor Akihito) on March 6. This was established in 1931 when the Imperial Women's Union was organized. In 1937, the first meeting of "Praise Mothers" was held on May 8, and in 1949 Japanese society adopted the second Sunday of May as the official date. Nowadays it is a rather commercial holiday, and people typically give flowers such as red carnations and roses as gifts.


Malta:

The first mention of Mother’s Day in Malta occurred during the Radio Children’s Programmes run by Frans H. Said in May 1961. Within a few years, Mother’s Day has become one of the most popular dates in the Maltese calendar. In Malta, this day is commemorated on the second Sunday in May. Mothers are invariably given gifts and invited for lunch, usually at a good restaurant.


Mexico:

The government of Álvaro Obregón imported the holiday from the US in 1922, with the newspaper Excélsior making a massive promotion campaign that year. The conservative government tried to use the holiday to promote a more conservative role for mothers in families, which was criticized by the socialists as promoting an unrealistic image of a woman who was not good for much more than breeding.
In the mid-1930s the government of Lázaro Cárdenas promoted the holiday as a "patriotic festival". The Cárdenas government tried to use the holiday as a vehicle for various efforts: stressing the importance of families for national development, benefiting from the loyalty that Mexicans had towards their mothers, introducing new morals to Mexican women and reducing the influence that the church and the Catholic right had on them. The government sponsored the holiday in the schools. However, the theatre plays ignored the strict guidelines from the government and they were filled with religious icons and themes, and the "national celebrations" became "religious fiestas" despite the efforts of the government.
Soledad Orozco García, the wife of President Manuel Ávila Camacho, promoted the holiday during the 1940s, making it into an important state-sponsored celebration.[36] The 1942 celebration lasted a whole week, including an announcement that all women could reclaim their pawned sewing machines from the Monte de Piedad at no cost.
The catholic National Synarchist Union (UNS) started paying attention to the holiday around 1941, due to Orozco's promotion. The members of the Party of the Mexican Revolution (now theInstitutional Revolutionary Party) that owned shops had a custom where women from humble classes could go to their shop in mother's day, pick a gift for free, and bring it home to their families. The Synarchists worried that this promoted both materialism and the idleness of lower classes, and in turn reinforced the systemic social problematics of the country. While nowadays we see those holiday practices as very conservative, the 1940s' UNS was viewing the holiday as a part of the larger debate on modernization that was happening at the time. This economic modernization was inspired by US models and was sponsored by the state, and the fact that the holiday was originally imported from the US was only seen as one more piece of evidence that it was an attempt at imposing capitalization and materialism in Mexican society.
Also, the UNS and the clergy of the city of León saw in the government actions an effort to secularize the holiday and to promote a more active role of women in society, with the long term goal of weakening men spiritually when women abandoned their traditional roles at home. They also saw the holiday as an attempt to secularize the cult to the Virgin Mary, inside a larger effort to dechristianize several holidays, and they tried to counter this by organizing massive masses and asking religious women to assist with the state-sponsored events and try to "depaganize" them. In 1942, at the same time as Soledad's greatest celebration of the holiday, the clergy organized in León the 210th celebration of the Virgin Mary with a big parade.
There is a consensus among scholars that the Mexican government abandoned its revolutionary initiatives during the 1940s, including efforts to influence Mother's Day.
Nowadays the "Día de las Madres" is an unofficial holiday in Mexico held each year on 10 May.


Nepal:

"Mata Tirtha Aunshi", translated as "Mother Pilgrimage fortnight", falls in the month of Baishak dark fortnight (April/may). This festival falls in the dark moon’s time, which is why this called "Mata Tirtha Aunshi" derived from words: "Mata" meaning mother; "Tirtha" meaning pilgrimage. This festival is observed in the commemoration and respect of the mother, which is celebrated by worshipping and gifting living mother or remembering mothers who have passed away. Going to Mata Tirtha Pilgrimage, located towards the eastern side Kathmandu valley at Mata Tirtha Village development committee’s periphery, is another tradition common in Nepal. Previously, people especially from Newar communities and people living in the valley used to celebrate it. Now, this festival is being celebrated by widespread communities.
There is a legend regarding this pilgrimage site. In ancient times Lord Krishna’s mother Devaki wondered out her house to sight-see. She visited many places and delayed her return to her house. Lord Krishna was very concerned because of her disappearance. So, he set out to find her. After a long and arduous search he found her. When he reached "Mata Tirtha Kunda", he happened to see his mother taking bath there, in the spouts of that pond. Lord Krishna was ecstatic when he found her and narrated all of the tragedies that had befallen him in her absence. Mother Devaki said to lord Krishna, "Oh! Son Krishna let then, this place be the pious rendezvous for children to meet their departed mothers". So, according to legends, since then this place has become a holy pilgrimage site, where people come to pay respect to their deceased mothers. Legend also holds that once a girl saw the image of her deceased mother inside the pond and she jumped into the pond to join her mother in death. Till this day there is a small pond fenced by the iron bars, where it is believed that the afore mentioned tragedy occurred.


New Zealand:

In New Zealand, Mother's Day is celebrated on the second Sunday in May. It is not a public holiday. It is traditional to give cards, gifts and breakfast in bed.


Nicaragua:

In Nicaragua the Día de la Madre is celebrated on 30 May since the first years of the 1940s. The date was chosen by President Anastasio Somoza García because it was the birthday of Casimira Sacasa, the mother of his wife.


Pakistan:

In Pakistan, Mother's Day is celebrated on the second Sunday of May. In Pakistan, mothers day is celebrated with various media channels having special shows to celebrate this day. Individuals honor their mothers by giving gifts and commemorative articles. Individuals who have lost their mother pray and pay their respects to their loved ones lost. The Punjab Govt. Project of Social Welfare Department Gender Reform Action Plan(GRAP), Gender Support Unit Gujranwala has regularly celebrated this event in large scale with the maximum participation of Govt. Officers, especially female, civil societies, media and General Community. The concerned officer Mr. Yasir Nawaz Manj has organized this event annually in the District Gujranwala Punjab Pakistan.


Panama:

In Panama it is celebrated on 8 December, the same day as the Feast of the Immaculate Conception. This date was suggested in 1930 by the wife of Panama's President Florencio Harmodio Arosemena, and it was passed as Law 69 in the same year.
According to other account, the Rotary Club of Panama asked in 1924 that Mother's Day be celebrated on 11 May to honor mothers, but a politician called Aníbal D. Ríos changed the proposal, so that it would be held on 8 December, and he made it into a national holiday.


Paraguay:

In Paraguay it is celebrated in 15 May, the same day as the Dia de la Patria, which celebrates the independence of Paraguay. This is apparently to honor the role played by Juana María de Lara in the events of 14 May 1811 that led to Paraguay's independence.
In 2008 the Paraguayan Minister of Culture, Bruno Barrios, lamented this coincidence because Mother's Day is so much more popular in comparison that the independence celebration goes unnoticed; he asked that the celebration was moved to the end of the month. A group of young people was trying to gather 20,000 signatures to ask the Parliament to move Mother's Day. The Comisión de festejos (Celebration Committee) of the city of Asunción asked in 2008 that Mother's Day was moved to the second Sunday of May.


Philippines:

Mother's day in the Philippines is celebrated every second Sunday of May. A Filipino mother is called the "light of the household" around which all activities revolve. Families treat mothers to lunch or dinner out, spend time with them in a park, shopping at the mall, watching movies, or giving her time to pamper herself. Most families typically celebrate at home. Children perform most chores that the mother routinely does, prepare food or give their mums small handcrafted tokens such as cards.
Although in its current form it is not a traditional Filipino holiday, this and Father's Day owe their popularity to American influence.


Portugal:

In Portugal, the "Dia da Mãe" ("Mother's Day", literally) is an unofficial holiday held each year on the first Sunday of May (sometimes coinciding with Labour Day).


Romania:

In Romania, since 2010, Mother's Day is celebrated in the first Sunday of May. Law 319/2009 also made Father's Day official in Romania, and it was passed thanks to the campaigning from the Alliance Fighting Discrimination Against Fathers (TATA).Previously, Mother's Day was celebrated on 8 March, as part of the International Women's Day (a leftover tradition from the days when Romania was part of the communist block), whereas now Mother's Day and Women's Day are two separate holidays, with Women's Day keeping its original date of 8 March.


Slovakia:

Czechoslovakia celebrated only Women's Day until the Velvet Revolution in 1989. After the split of the country in 1993, Slovakia started celebrating both Women's Day and Mother's Day. The politicization of Women's Day has affected the official status of Mother's Day. Center-right parties want Mother's Day to replace Women's Day, while social-democrats want to make Women's Day official. Nowadays, both days are festive, but they are not "state holidays".


Sweden:

In Sweden, Mother's Day was first celebrated in 1919, by initiative of the author Cecilia Bååth-Holmberg. It took several decades for the day to be widely recognized though. Those born in the early nineteen hundreds typically did not celebrate the day, as the common opinion was that it had been invented strictly for commercial purposes. Not the same thing when it came to Father's day though, since the late 1970s has the practice found common acceptance. Mother´s Day in Sweden is celebrated the last Sunday in May, The reason for the late date is said to be because then everybody could go outside and pick flowers.


Taiwan:

In Taiwan, Mother’s Day is celebrated on the second Sunday of the month of May, coinciding with Buddha Day and Tzu Chi Day as part of a unified celebration and religious observance. In Taiwanese Budhist culture, recognizing Mother's Day is conflated as part of three "fields" necessary for cultivating wisdom. Mother’s Day in Taiwan represents the “field of gratitude, thankfulness and honor,” while Buddha Day is for the “field of reverence” and Tzu Chi day contributes to the “field of compassion.”


Thailand:

Mother's day in Thailand is celebrated on the birthday of the Queen of Thailand, Queen Sirikit (12 Aug). It started being celebrated around the 1980s as part of the campaign by the Prime Minister of Thailand Prem Tinsulanonda to promote Thailand's Royal family. Father's Day is celebrated on the King's birthday.


Turkey:

Turkey celebrates the Mother's Day on the second Sunday in May.


United Kingdom and Ireland:

In the United Kingdom and Ireland, there is a celebration called Mothering Sunday, which falls on the fourth Sunday of Lent (18 March in 2012). Most historians believe that it originated from the 16th century Christian practice of visiting one's mother church annually on Laetare Sunday, which meant that most mothers would be reunited with their children on this day when young apprentices and young women in service were released by their masters that weekend. As a result of commercialization and secularization, it was then principally used to show appreciation to one's mother, although it is still recognized in the historical sense by some churches, with attention paid to Mary the mother of Jesus Christ as well as the traditional concept 'Mother Church'.
By 1935 Mothering Sunday was less celebrated in Europe. There were efforts to revive the festival in the 1910s–1920s by Constance Penswick-Smith, but it was not revived until US World War II soldiers brought the Mother's Day celebrations to the UK, and it was merged with the Mothering Sunday traditions still celebrated in the Church of England. By the 1950s it had become popular in the whole of the UK, thanks to the efforts of UK merchants, who saw in the festival a great commercial opportunity. People from Ireland and UK started celebrating Mother's Day on the fourth Sunday of Lent, the same day on which Mothering Sunday had been celebrated for centuries. Some Mothering Sunday traditions were revived, such as the tradition of eating cake on that day, although they now eat simnel cake instead of the cakes that were traditionally prepared at that time. The traditions of the two celebrations have now been mixed up, and many people think that they are the same thing.
Mothering Sunday can fall at the earliest on 1 March (in years when Easter Day falls on 22 March) and at the latest on 4 April (when Easter Day falls on 25 April). For many people in the United Kingdom, Mothers Day is the time of year to celebrate and buy gifts of chocolate or flowers for their mothers as a way to thank them for what they do throughout the year.


United States of America:


The United States celebrates Mother's Day on the second Sunday in May. Julia Ward Howe first issued her Mother's Day Proclamation in 1870 as a call for women to join in support of disarmament. In the 1880s and 1890s there were several further attempts to establish an American Mother's Day, but these did not succeed beyond the local level. The current holiday was created by Anna Jarvis in Grafton, West Virginia, in 1908 as a day to honour one's mother. Jarvis wanted to accomplish her mother's dream of making a celebration for all mothers, although the idea did not take off until she enlisted the services of wealthy Philadelphia merchant John Wanamaker. She kept promoting the holiday until President Woodrow Wilson made it an official national holiday in 1914. The holiday eventually became so highly commercialized that many, including its founder, Anna Jarvis, considered it a "Hallmark holiday", i.e. one with an overwhelming commercial purpose. Jarvis eventually ended up opposing the holiday she had helped to create. She died in 1948, regretting what had become of her holiday. In the United States, Mother's Day remains one of the biggest days for sales of flowers, greeting cards, and the like; it is also the biggest holiday for long-distance telephone calls. Moreover, churchgoing is also popular, yielding the highest church attendance after Christmas Eve and Easter. Many worshipers celebrate the day with carnations, colored if the mother is living and white if she is deceased.

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